Recently, Stanford student Zach DeVito created a language called TerraLang based of Lua. My impression is that is a statically typed version of Lua (though not everything has to be typed, regular Lua functions execute just fine) with tight LLVM integration. Code written in the TerraLang syntax (using the terra keyword) can be JIT compiled to machine code (using LLVM). TerraLang is called a multi stage system, superficially to me, this means it has a similar macro system to LISP’s ( i am most likley very wrong).

My reasons for investigating TerraLang is to find an extension language for R that has good performance characteristics. The current choice is C++ (using Rcpp) or Java (using rJava). Both languages are performant and in many cases, provide orders of speed improvement over the R language. However, I don’t recommend either for the general R programmer. I have seen too many segfaults, R programmers fighting with pointers, and the verbosity of Java

Lua on the other hand is a very simple language to learn. LuaJIT is a blazing fast implementation of Lua (though one has to program idiomatically). And TerraLang can compile terra functions to machine code (via LLVM). Moreover, one can write macros in TerraLang to produce code-driven-code!

I will describe some micro benchmarks and help a fellow explorer create their own terrRific code!


You need: Ubuntu 12.10 (what i tested on), LLVM 3.2, Clang, and R (with development libraries). The files,code2.t and run.R can be foundhere.

You should install LuaJIT. To do that go here, download the archive, unzip and run

make && sudo make install

You might need to use sudo to make install.

Now, clone the Terra repository

git clone
cd terra
sudo cp build/ /usr/local/lib/

Download the file from here and run

g++ -fPIC -c -o a.o `R CMD config --cppflags` -I/usr/local/include/luajit-2.0/ -I/home/sguha/dev/terra/src

Note the last -I/home/sguha/dev/terra/src, this should point to the location where you downloaded Terra and then

g++ -shared a.o -o `R CMD config --ldflags` -L/usr/local/lib -lluajit-5.1 -lterra

If all works, you should have in the terra directory.

Using TerraLang as an Extension Language for R

We will compare performance with bubblesort found here . Download the above files (code2.t and friends, change the


to point to where you downloaded code2.t), which contains the bubble sort code along with other demo Lua/Terra code. Some examples:

Terra Code to load the libraries

Rmath = terralib.includec("Rmath.h")
Rinternals = terralib.includec("Rinternals.h")

Code to allocate an R vector, the type of the vector is based on what. Here it is 14 and taken from Rinternals.h. In a complete R-Terra library, this would be from a table.

terra x( what :int, l :int)
	var a =  Rinternals.Rf_allocVector(what, l)

Benchmarking the BubbleSort

This can be written so that the sort is in place. For comparison purposes I’ve made a copy. Note, a lot of this is boilerplate and in a library it would be removed.

terra bubbleSort( a :&Rinternals.SEXPREC ): &Rinternals.SEXPREC
   var itemCount:int = Rinternals.LENGTH(a)
   var hasChanged : bool
   var ac : &Rinternals.SEXPREC = Rinternals.Rf_allocVector(14,itemCount)
   -- do a memcpy
   ffi.copy(Rinternals.REAL(ac), Rinternals.REAL(a), itemCount*8)
   var A : &double = Rinternals.REAL(ac)
      hasChanged = false
      itemCount = itemCount - 1
      for i = 0, itemCount do
   	  if A[i] > A[i + 1] then
   	    @(A+i), @(A+i + 1) = A[i + 1], A[i]
   	    hasChanged = true
   until hasChanged == false

The R code to initialize this is (run R in the terra directory)

Sys.setenv(INCLUDE_PATH= strsplit(system("R CMD config --cppflags",intern=TRUE),"-I")[[1]][[2]])
.Call("terraDoFile","/home/sguha/dev/earth/code2.t") ## change to path of code2.t

And now run the comparison benchmark

require(inline)  ## for cxxfunction()                                                       
src = 'Rcpp::NumericVector vec = Rcpp::NumericVector(vec_in);                               
       double tmp = 0;                                                                      
       int no_swaps;                                                                        
       while(true) {                                                                        
           no_swaps = 0;                                                                    
           for (int i = 0; i < vec.size()-1; ++i) {                                         
               if(vec[i] > vec[i+1]) {                                                      
                   tmp = vec[i];                                                            
                   vec[i] = vec[i+1];                                                       
                   vec[i+1] = tmp;                                                          
           if(no_swaps == 0) break;                                                         
bubble_sort_cpp = cxxfunction(signature(vec_in = "numeric"), body=src, plugin="Rcpp")  	

vector_size <- 10000
x1 <- as.numeric(sample(1:vector_size))

Results of Benchmark

(In microseconds), The first line corresponds to TerraLang, Rcpp and lastly, R builtin. Note, R builtin does much more work(NA resolution etc).

                                    expr     min       lq   median       uq         max neval
 .Call("doTerraFunc1", "bubbleSort", x1)  40.019  43.1315  46.6980  50.8220     913.433   100
                     bubble_sort_cpp(x1)  81.326  83.3380  83.7335  84.9925 1755508.443   100
                                sort(x1) 167.754 171.3210 175.5285 182.6385    1176.576   100

For a vector of length 100,000

                                   expr      min       lq   median       uq
 .Call("doTerraFunc1", "bubbleSort", x1)  470.705  759.308 1084.037 2147.427
                     bubble_sort_cpp(x1)  928.686 2026.870 2056.922 2134.380
                                sort(x1) 1940.067 3232.532 3991.745 5185.881


None of the above code uses the true power of Terra - it’s macro facility,though the (if i’m not mistaken) the Terra function is compiled to machine code via LLVM. It looks like FFI calls to the R library and yet it is performant. I should also just try writing the FFI version in a standard a Lua function (and then it will be pure LuaJIT). That said, the example is silly … and the Rcpp examples (e.g. clamp) are not so interesting. A good test would be to rewrite an R package using a Terra+R library.